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The problem. Existing analyses focus on a mythical average citizen.

The solution. We develop ways of analysing who gains and loses from health policies.

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Monitoring Fairness in the NHS

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Publication details

Journal Social Science & Medicine
Date Accepted/In press - 22 Feb 2019
Date E-pub ahead of print (current) - 1 Mar 2019
Date Published - May 2019
Volume 228
Number of pages 8
Pages (from-to) 1 - 8
Early online date 1/03/19
Original language English


The paper develops and illustrates a new multivariate approach to analysing inequity in health care. We measure multiple inequity in health care relating to multiple equity-relevant variables – including income, gender, ethnicity, rurality, insurance status and others – and decompose the contribution of each variable to multiple inequity. Our approach encompasses the standard bivariate approach as a special case in which there is only one equity-relevant variable, such as income. We illustrate through an application to physician visits in Brazil, using data from the Health and Health Care Supplement of the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey, comprising 391,868 individuals in the year 2008. We find that health insurance coverage and urban location both contribute more to multiple inequity than income. We hope this approach will help researchers and analysts shed light on the comparative size and importance of the many different inequities in health care of interest to decision makers, rather than focus narrowly on income-related inequity.

Bibliographical note

© 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


General Practitioners and Emergency Departments (GPED): Efficient Models of Care. A mixed-methods study protocol

Morton, K., Voss, S., Adamson, J., Baxter, H., Bloor, K. E., Brandling, J., Cowlishaw, S., Doran, T., Gibson, A., Gutacker, N., Liu, D., Purdy, S., Roy, P., Salisbury, C., Scantlebury, A. L., Vaittinen, A., Watson, R. M. & Benger, J., 5 Oct 2018

Article in BMJ Open

Publication details

Journal BMJ Open
Date Accepted/In press - 16 Jul 2018
Date Published (current) - 5 Oct 2018
Volume 8
Number of pages 8
Original language English

Bibliographical note

© Author(s). This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details


EQUIPOL is supported by the University of York, the Wellcome Trust (Grant No. 205427/Z/16/Z) and the NIHR (SRF-2013-06-015).

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