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Publication details

JournalJournal of Health Services Research & Policy
DateE-pub ahead of print - 2 Dec 2020
Original languageEnglish


In England, older adults (aged ≥50 years) are at greater risk of being diagnosed with advanced stage HIV infection than younger adults. We explored journeys to testing and diagnosis among older adults, examining factors associated with late HIV diagnosis in this age group.

Semi-structured qualitative interviews were performed with 12 adults diagnosed with HIV at age 50+ years and 12 health care professionals working in sexual health/HIV services. Data were analysed thematically, using the Model of Pathways to Treatment as a framework for analysis.

Older adults were often found to experience non-linear and complex diagnostic journeys. Pathways to diagnosis were affected by 6 factors: (i) the non-specific nature of HIV symptoms and their misattribution as being age-related; (ii) symptom severity, impact, and visibility; (iii) HIV health literacy; (iv) perceptions of HIV risk; (v) geographical location; and (vi) assessment in non-specialist settings.

Older adults appear to encounter additional barriers to HIV testing compared with younger people, particularly when they are not part of a group targeted in HIV prevention and testing campaigns. To diagnose HIV more promptly in adults aged 50+ years, HIV knowledge and risk perception must increase in both older people and health care professionals. Health care professionals need to look beyond the ‘high risk’ groups that are most affected by HIV and consider HIV more readily in the diagnostic process.

Keywords HIV, older people, HIV testing

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2020

Publication details

JournalValue in Health
DateAccepted/In press - 1 Oct 2020
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 7 Nov 2020
Number of pages12
Early online date7/11/20
Original languageEnglish


Distributional Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (DCEA) provides information about the equity impacts of health technologies and programmes
It can provide distributional breakdowns of effects and opportunity costs by equity-relevant social variables and/or disease categories
It can also use equity weights to summarise equity impacts and analyse trade-offs between equity and efficiency
This editorial describes recent developments in DCEA
New training resources and professional networks are provided

Bibliographical note

This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy.

Publication details

JournalHealth Economics
DateAccepted/In press - 24 Aug 2020
DateE-pub ahead of print (current) - 22 Oct 2020
Number of pages16
Pages (from-to)1-16
Early online date22/10/20
Original languageEnglish


We introduce a summary wellbeing measure for economic evaluation of cross-sectoral public policies with impacts on health and living standards. We show how to calculate period-specific and lifetime wellbeing using quality-adjusted life years based on widely available data on health-related quality of life and consumption and normative assumptions about three parameters – minimal consumption, standard consumption, and the elasticity of the marginal value of consumption. We also illustrate how these three parameters can be tailored to the decision-making context and varied in sensitivity analysis to provide information about the implications of alternative value judgements. As well as providing a general measure for cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis in terms of wellbeing, this approach also facilitates distributional analysis in terms of how many good years different population subgroups can expect to live under different policy scenarios.

Bibliographical note

© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an author-produced version of the published paper. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher’s self-archiving policy. Further copying may not be permitted; contact the publisher for details.


EQUIPOL is supported by the University of York, the Wellcome Trust (Grant No. 205427/Z/16/Z) and the NIHR (SRF-2013-06-015).

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